Whisk together flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt in a large bowl. Use a pastry cutter to cut in butter until pea-sized pieces form.
Pour in chopped sage, grated cheddar, and buttermilk, mixing just until combined. Pour out onto a lightly floured surface and gently pat into a rectangle about 1” tall.
Use a bench scraper to cut the dough into equal rectangles, then carefully stack them on top of each other. Use a lightly floured rolling pin to gently roll out into a 1” tall square.
Cut into 12 biscuits, then carefully transfer to prepared baking sheet lined with parchment paper, leaving about 2” between each. Place biscuits in freezer for 10-15 minutes. Preheat oven to 425 F.
Combine melted butter in a small bowl with rye whiskey, then brush tops of biscuits. Sprinkle each biscuit with freshly ground black pepper and a few maldon sea salt flakes.
Bake until tops are golden brown. Serve with honey and butter.